Article   |   Volume 161, Issue 6

Machine Speech

Tim Wu
161 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1495 (2013)

May 2013

Computers are making an increasing number of important decisions in our lives. They fly airplanes, navigate traffic, and even recommend books. In the process, computers reason through automated algorithms and constantly send and receive information, sometimes in ways that mimic human expression. When can such communications, called here “algorithmic outputs,” claim First Amendment protection?

Machine Speech -

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